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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 13, p. 259.


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FORESTS 259
bouring Provinces the surplus grain of the country is exported, thus
causing a rise in prices. During the famines of 1897 and x899-igoo
prices of grain were extraordinarily high, though, while grain was being
imported for the relief of the affected areas, it was being largely ex-
ported from the other parts of the State to Provinces where large
profits were probable. During the famine of 1899-r9oo, jowtir sold
at 5 seers per rupee in Aurangā,bā,d, at 313, seers in Bhir and Nander,
at 4ā seers in Parbhani and Osmā.nābād, and at 5ā seers in Bidar. In
Table III the price of salt is given for Hyderabad only, the prices
in the country being almost the same.
A total area of nearly r8,ooo square miles is under forests, which
are divided into three classes: the `reserved' (5,184 square miles),
the protected (4,4o8 square miles), and the open or
unprotected (8,387 square miles). In the `reserved' Forests.
and protected forests, trees are under the control of the Forest depart-
ment ; but in the open forests only sixteen specie's are reserved
namely, sandal (Santalum album), teak (Tectona grandis), shisham
(Dalbergia Sissoo), ebony (Diospyros melanoxylon), satin-wood (Chlor-
oxylon Swietenia), eppa (Hardwickia binata), nālldmadi (Terminklia
tomentosa), b~Vāsāl (Pterocarpus Marsupium), bath gunam (Stephegyne
parvifolia), somi (Soymida febHfuga), dhaura or tirmani (Anogeissus
latifolia), kodsha (Cleistanthus collinus), sandra (Acacia Catechu), bhan-
ddra (Adina cordifolia), mokab (Schrebera swietenioides), and chinnangi
(Lagerstroemia parvi)7ora). The forests form six divisions-Warangal,
Indūr, Nirmal, Mahbūbnagar, Aurangā,bā.d, and Gulbarga-the last
two being in Marathwāra, and the remainder in Telingā,na. Each
division is under an Assistant Conservator. The management of this
department is guided by the Forest Act of 1899, which empowers the
Conservator to exercise full control over `reserved' and protected
forests, and reserved species of trees in open forests. Timber is---'
supplied to purchasers at prescribed rates, while cultivators receive
free timber and fuel for agricultural implements and domestic purposes.
Minor produce, such as grass, branches, and leaves, &c., is likewise
granted free to the local ryots. Free grazing is also permitted, under
certain restrictions. After meeting the local demand, timber of various
kinds is exported to different parts of the State. Local railways and
the military workshop are also supplied with timber, exploited and
transported departmentally. No use is made of elephants nor are
floating operations resorted to.
No special fuel and fodder reserves are maintained, but the grazing
in the `reserved' and protected forests is regulated by the department,
and fees are collected either departmentally or through contract agency.
Grazing rights in the open forests are auctioned annually by the
Revenue department. In years of scarcity cattle are sent to the
s2
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