ADlflXISTRA TIO.X 395
assessments, it forms the basis on which the land revenue is distributed
among individual cultivators.
The first act of the British officers was to apply the village system of
the plains to the Kangra valley. The tenants, with their private cul-
tivating rights, became the proprietary body, with joint revenue-paying
responsibilities. The waste, formerly regarded as the property of the
Rajas, became attached to the village communities as joint common
land. The people thus gained the income arising from the common
land, which had previously been claimed by the state.
A summary settlement was made in 1846 by John Lawrence, Com-
missioner of the Jullundur Doab, and Lieutenant Lake, Assistant Com-
missioner, based entirely on the Sikh rent-roll with a reduction of
10 per cent. The first regular settlement, made in 1849, reduced the
demand on 'dry' land by 12 per cent., maintaining the former assess-
ment on ' wet' land. A revised settlement, made in 1866-71, had for
its object the preparation of correct records-of-rights : but the assess-
ment was not revised until 1889-94. when an increase of 19 per cent,
was announced. Rates varied from Rs. 1-5—4 to R. 0-14-7 Per acre.
The total demand in 1903-4, including cesses, was about 10-7 lakhs.
The average size of a proprietary holding is 2 acres. There are a num-
ber of large jagirs in the District, the chief of which are Lambagraon,
Nadaun, and Dado Slba in Kangra proper, and wasiri Rupi in Kulu.
A system of forced labour known as begdr was in vogue in the
Kangra hills until recently, and dates back from remote antiquity. All
classes who cultivate the soil were bound to give, as a condition of the
tenure, a portion of their labour for the exigencies of the state. Under
former dynasties the people were regularly drafted and sent to work out
their period of servitude wherever the ruler chose. So inveterate had
the practice become that even artisans, and other classes unconnected
with the soil, were obliged to devote a portion of their time to the
public service. Under the British Government the custom was main-
tained for the conveyance of travellers' luggage and the supply of grass
and wood for their camps, but was practically abolished in Kangra
proper in 1884, and in Kulu in 1896.
The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue are
shown below, in thousands of rupees :—
1880-1. 1890-1. 1900-1. 1903-4.
Land revenue Total revenue 6,19 8,76 6,57 9,92 7.35 r°,57 7.5° I0.55
The District contains three municipalities, DHARMSALA, KANGRA,
and NURPUR. Outside these, local affairs are managed by a District
board, and by the local boards of Kangra, Nurpur, Dera Gopipur,
VOL. xiv. c c