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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 20, p. 57.

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some other prisoners. As soon as regular warfare commenced, Mir
Kasim's successes came to an- end. He was defeated in two battles
by Major Adams, at Giria on August z, and at Udhua Nullah on
September 5. These defeats roused the Nawab to exasperation, and
on September 9 he wrote to Major Adams : `If you are resolved to pro-
ceed in this business, know for a certainty that I will cut off the heads
of Mr. Ellis and the rest of your chiefs, and send them to you.' This
threat he carried out on the evening of October 6 with the help of
a renegade named Walter Reinhardt, who was known to the Muham-
madans as Sumru. About 6o Englishmen were murdered, their bodies
being thrown into a well in the compound of the house in which they
were confined, and about 150 more met their death in other parts of
Bengal. This massacre was followed by an active campaign in which
the English were everywhere successful; and finally in August,
1765, after the decisive battle of Buxar, the administration of Bihar,
Bengal, and Orissa was made over to the East India Company. An
English Resident was appointed at Patna; but the administration of
Bihar, which then comprised only Patna and Gaya Districts-Patna
city itself being regarded as a separate charge--remained in the hands
of natives. In 1769 English Supervisors were appointed, and in 1770
a Council for Bihar was established at Patna. In 1774 the Supervisors,
who had meanwhile been designated Collectors, and the Council for
Bihar were abolished, and a Provincial Council was established at
Patna. This lasted till 1781, when Bihar was made a District under a
Collector and a Judge-Magistrate. In 1865 it was divided into Patna
and Gaya Districts, the Bihar subdivision being included in the former,
and nineteen estates were transferred from Patna to Tirhut in 1869,
thus constituting the District as it now exists.
The other important event in the modern history of the District is
the mutiny of the sepoys stationed at Dinapore, the military station
attached to Patna city. The three sepoy regiments at this place in
1857 were the 7th, 8th, and 40th Native Infantry. General Lloyd, who
commanded the station, wrote expressing his confidence in their loyalty,
and they were accordingly not disarmed; but as the excitement in-
creased throughout Bihar, and stronger measures seemed in the opinion
of the Commissioner, Mr. Tayler, to be necessary, the general, while
still apparently relying on the trustworthiness of the men, made a half-
hearted attempt at disarming the sepoys. The result was that the
three regiments revolted and went off in a body, taking with them
their arms and accoutrements, but not their uniforms. Some took to
the Ganges, where their boats were fired into and run down by a
steamer which was present, and their occupants shot or drowned. But
the majority were wiser, and hastened to the river Son, crossing which
they found themselves safe in Shahabad. The story of what took place
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