PA TNA DISTRICT
in Shahabad will be found in the article on ARRAN. When the
news reached Bankipore that the rebels, headed by Kunwar (or Kuar)
Singh, had surrounded the Europeans at Arrah, an ill-fated attempt
was made to rescue them. A steamer, which was sent up the river.
on July 27, stuck on a sandbank. Another steamer was started on
the 29th ; but the expedition was grossly mismanaged. The troops
were landed at 7 p.m., and fell into an ambuscade about midnight.
When the morning dawned, a disastrous retreat had to be commenced.
Out of the 400 men who had left Dinapore fully Half were left behind;
and of the survivors only about 5o returned unwounded. Two volun-
teers, Mr. McDonell and Mr. Ross Mangles, both of the Civil Service,
besides doing excellent service on the march, performed acts of
conspicuous daring. The former, though wounded, was one of the
last men to enter the boats, and subsequently stepped out of shelter,
climbed on the roof of the boat, and released the rudder, which had been
lashed by the insurgents, amidst a storm of bullets from the contiguous
bank. Mr. Ross Mangles's conduct was equally heroic. He carried a
wounded man for 6 miles till he reached the stream, and then swam
with his helpless burden to a boat, in which he deposited him in safety.
Both these gentlemen afterwards received the Victoria Cross as a
reward for their heroism.
The chief places of archaeological interest are RAJGIR, MAKER,
PATNA CITY, BIHAR, and GIRIAK. The village of BARAGAON has been
identified as the site of the famous Nalanda monastery, and with the
neighbouring village of Begampur contains masses of ruins ; at
Tetrawan and JagdIspur are colossal statues of Buddha, and at Telhara
and Islampur the, remains of Buddhist monasteries. Many other
Buddhist remains are of more or less interest.
The population increased from 1,559,517 in 1872 to 1,756,196 in
1881 and to 1,773,410 in i89i, but dropped to 1,624,985 in 19or.
Population. The apparent increase between 1872 and 1881 was
largely owing to defective enumeration in the former
year, while the decrease recorded in 19or is due mainly to the direct
and indirect results of plague, which first broke out in January, 1900,
and was raging in the District at the time when the Census was taken,
causing many people to leave their homes and greatly increasing the
difficulties in the way of the census staff. The loss of population was
greatest in the thickly populated urban and semi-urban country along
the banks of the Ganges, where the plague epidemic was most virulent.
The south of the District, which suffered least from plague, almost held
its ground. Plague has since become practically an annual visitation
and causes heavy mortality. The principal statistics of the Census oŁ
19or are shown in the table on the next page.
The chief towns are PATNA CITY, BIHAR, DINAPORE, MOKAMmr, and