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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 20, p. 334.

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the three Phulkian States (Patiala, Jind, and Nabha) and Bahawalpur
are in charge of a Political Agent under the direct control of the
Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab; Chamba is under the Commis-
sioner of Lahore; Kapurthala, Faridkot, Maler Kotla, Mandi, and Suket
are under the Commissioner of Jullundur ; Sirmur, Kalsia, Dujana,
Pataudi, and Loharu are under the Commissioner of Delhi ; and the
28 Simla States are under the control of the Deputy-Commissioner of
Simla, as ex-otio Superintendent, Simla Hill States.
The relations of the British Government with Bahawalpur are regu.
lated by treaty; those with the other States by sanads or charters from
the Governor-General. The States of Patiala, Bahawalpur, Jind,
Nabha, Kapurthala, Sirmur, Faridkot, and Maler Kotla maintain
Imperial Service troops. The other States and also Kapurthala pay a
money tribute, amounting in 1903-4 to a total of Rs. 2,66,434. The
States of Patiala, Jind, and Nabha are ruled by members of the Phulkian
family; and should there be a failure of direct heirs in any of them, the
sanads provide for the selection of a collateral as successor by the chiefs
of the other two States. A nazardna or relief is payable to the British
Government by the collateral who succeeds. The Phulkian chiefs, and
also the Raja of Faridkot, are bound by sanad to execute justice and to
promote the welfare of their people ; to prevent sati, slavery, and female
infanticide; to co-operate with the British Government against an
enemy, and to furnish supplies to troops ; and to grant, free of expense,
land required for railways and imperial lines of road. On the other
hand, the British Government has guaranteed them full and unreserved
possession of their territories. They, with Bahawalpur and Kapurthala,
differ from the remaining feudatories in the fact that they possess power
to inflict capital punishment upon their subjects. The treaties with
Bahawalpur define the supreme position of the British Government, and
bind the Nawab to act in accordance with its wishes, while in turn the
British Government engages to protect the State. Sanads of varying
import are also possessed by the minor feudatories.
Of the chiefs, those of Bahawalpur, Maler Kotla, Pataudi, Loharu,
and Dujana are Muhammadans ; those of Patiala, Jind, Nabha, Kapur-
thala, Faridkot, and Kalsia are Sikhs; and the rest are Hindus. Of
the Muhammadan chiefs, the Nawab of Bahawalpur is head of the
Daudputra tribe, being a descendant of Bahawal Khan, who acquired
independence during the collapse of the Sadozai dynasty of Afghani-
stan early in the nineteenth century. The Nawab of Maler Kotla is
a member of an .Afghan family which came from Kabul about the time
of the rise of the Mughal empire; his ancestors held offices of im-
portance under the Delhi kings and became independent as the
Mughal dynasty sank, into decay. The chiefs of Pataudi and Dujana
are descended from Afghan adventurers, and the Nawab of Loharu
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