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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 22, p. 151.

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rocks, but at the northern part a considerable quantity of trap is found,
and on the west a narrow band of laterite. These with the Ghats on
the east form physical features which serve as a sort of natural boun
dary to the country. The great metamorphic -spurs which run out
west from under the mural termination of the Deccan trap at the
Ghats extend to varying distances, and either end abruptly or break
into clusters of lower hills. The intervening country is low and
covered with thicker soil than is usually the case in the Konkan
this renders Savantvadi more open to cultivation than the barren
laterite plateau to the west and north. There are a few insignificant
outliers of the Kaladgi (Cuddapah) series.
Tigers, leopards, bears, bison, deer, wild hog, wild dogs, jackals,
foxes, and hyenas are found. Snakes are common. In the Ghat
tracts the State contains good teak; and black-wood, ain, hher, and
jdmba are common. Near the sea, jack-wood, mango, bhirand (Gar-
cinia indica), coco-nut palms, and cashew-nut are plentiful.
The climate is humid and relaxing, with a heavy rainfall, the average
annual fall being 150 inches. April is the hottest month in the year;
in May a strong sea-breeze, the precursor of the south-west monsoon,
tempers the heat. The temperature rises to ioo° in May and falls to
62° in January.
Early inscriptions show that from the sixth to the eighth centuries
the Chalukyas ruled over Savantvadi. In the tenth century the rulers
were Yadavas. In the -thirteenth century the Cha-

lukyas were again in power. At the close of the four- History.
teenth century Savantvadi was under an officer of the Vijayanagar
dynasty. About the middle of the fifteenth century it formed part
of a powerful Brahman dynasty. On the establishment of the Bijapur
power at the close of the fifteenth century, Savantvadi became part of
the territory of these kings. In about 1554 one Mang Savant of the
Bhonsla -family revolted from Bijapur, and making Hodowra, a small
village 9 miles from Vadi, his head-quarters, defeated the troops sent
against him, and maintained his independence during his lifetime.
After his death his successors again became feudatories of the Bijapur
The chief who finally freed his country from the Muhammadan
yoke was Khem Savant Bhonsla, who ruled from 1627 to 1640. He
was succeeded by his son Som Savant, who, after ruling for eighteen
months, was succeeded by his brother, Lakham Savant. When the
power of Sivaji seemed in the ascendant (165o), Lakham Savant
tendered him allegiance, and was confirmed as Sar Desai of the
whole Southern Konkan. Dying in 1665, Lakham was succeeded by
his brother, Phond Savant, who, after ruling for ten years, was
succeeded by his son, Khem Savant II. This chief, by aiding the
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