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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 24, p. 108.

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The beds of these streams are low, and they afford no facilities for
direct irrigation. It is in contemplation to restore the Gandipalem
tank, a large reservoir fed by the Pillaperu. The chief sources of
water-supply are wells, of which 1,942 are in repair. These are deep
square pits excavated in stony strata, which cannot be depended upon
in years of short rainfall. The 150 wells on the river banks afford
better irrigation. The tanks, numbering 41, are rain-fed and afford but
a precarious supply. The prohibitive cost of wells, and the absence
of demand for the grains (rdgi and cambu) which are usually irrigated
from them, prevent any appreciable increase in their number. Owing
to the want of facilities for irrigation, the natural poverty of the soil,
and the uncertain rainfall, the tdluk is subject to frequent scarcities,
and emigration is common. The crops usually grown are cambu,
castor, cotton, indigo, and aruga with the south-west monsoon; and
rice, cholam, and rdgi with the north-east rains. Tobacco is raised by
well-irrigation for local consumption.
Udayagiri Village.-Head-quarters of the tdluk of the same name
in Nellore District, Madras, situated in 14 53' N. and 79 18' E.
Population (1901), 4,021. It was formerly a place of importance. The
walls which once encircled the town have almost entirely disappeared,
but much of the fortifications on the neighbouring hill to the west still
remains. The fort originally consisted of thirteen separate strongholds,
eight on the hill and five below. Inside the walls are the remains of
tombs, temples, and palaces. Part of the hill is so precipitous as to be
inaccessible, the cliffs being in places nearly 1,ooo feet high, and every
path up was commanded by lines of defences. Tradition states that
in the fourteenth century it was the capital of a kingdom founded by
Langula Gajapati. It fell into the hands of Krishna Deva of Vijaya-
nagar in 1512. Afterwards it was nominally under the Golconda
dynasty, but was held by semi-independent chiefs. On the top of the
hill is a mosque, in which are two Persian inscriptions referring to its
construction in 166o by Shaikh Husain in the reign of Sultan Abdullah
of Golconda, and to the planting of a garden near by. The jdgir of
Udayagiri was granted by the Nawabs of Arcot to a certain Mustafa
All Khan. The last of his descendants was deported to Chingleput in
1839 for treasonable conduct, and the jdgir was resumed. The village
is supplied with fresh water by an open channel from the springs on
the hill. It contains hospitals and schools maintained by the local
board and the American Baptist Mission.
Udayagiri.-Ancient site in the Bhilsa district of Gwalior State,
Central India, situated in 23 32'N. and 77' 46' E., between the Betwa
and the Besh rivers, 4 miles from Bhilsa, on the Midland section of
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. The place is important on ac-
count of the interesting rock-cut temples excavated in an isolated' sand-
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