As has been noted, the United States initiated foreign eco- nomic aid to South Asia in 1951. The Soviet Union, the second-largest single donor (not counting the United Nations and its specialized agencies) commenced its own aid program some three years later. The aid provided for India, Pakistan, and Ceylon by the donor nations, individually or by regional groups, and by the United Nations and other world agencies (not necessarily U.N.-affiliated) is shown on map (b) by plan periods and on the pie graphs below for the entire period through 1966 as percentage shares of the global totals, which for all three recipients combined came to $16.29 billion. Be- low the pie graphs are three bar graphs showing the respective shares of the same set of donors in the combined total aid given in the form of grants (including grant-like aid), in the form of loans, and in both forms combined.
Among the salient features of the map and the accompany- ing graphs we judge the following to be of particular impor- tance. First, of the total aid provided in the period under re- view, that of the United States, nearly $8.5 billion, accounted for nearly 52% of the world total, roughly 85% of all the grants and grant-like aid, and approximately 35% of all the loans. Second, of the nearly $4.75 billion in American grants and grant-like aid (including more than $80 million from the Ford Foundation) about $3.3 billion (nearly 70%) was pro- vided on a counterpart-funding basis under United States Pub- lic Laws 480, 665, and others; of these P.L. 480 assistance, whereby United States grain surpluses were exchanged for rupee funding to be kept in reserves in South Asia itself, was by far the most important, especially for India. (Apart from the United States, only Canada and Australia were important donors of grants as opposed to loans.) Third, disregarding aid from the United Nations and other world agencies, total aid from non-Communist states, counting both grants and loans, was nearly eight and a half times as great as that from the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China, almost all of which was in the form of loans. Fourth, while total aid to India from 1951 to 1966 ($12.3 billion) was far greater than that to Paki- stan ($3.7 billion), aid per capita to Pakistan ($40) was sub- stantially greater than that to India (roughly $28); this gen- eralization holds true not only for aid from the United States but also for aid from most of the countries of Eastern Europe whose total aid favored India. Fifth, the total quantum of aid rose rapidly from the first to the second of the three aid periods considered (from about $1.2 to $6.4 billion) and then slowly in the third period (then totaling more than $8.6 billion); the relative increase from one period to another, however, would have been much more even were it not for the unusually large volume of grant-like aid from the United States (nearly $2.5 billion) concentrated in the second period.
Assessment of the impact and significance of foreign aid is beset with difficulties, and within the plethora of literature on the subject objective analyses are few. The politics of foreign aid, a byplay of the politics of the Cold War in general, have led to radically different interpretations of the motives of both the donors and the recipients in entering into aid agreements as well as to pronouncedly different evaluations of the eco- nomic benefits or harm the acceptance of aid entails. While, on the one hand, motives alleged to be altruistic are often
For a variety of reasons, since 1966, the terminal year of the data of plate XI.D.5, map (b), the value of foreign aid dispensed to South Asia and throughout the developing world has been sharply curtailed. A final assessment of the aid ex- perience and of the current decline in funding will require the perspective of historical hindsight and therefore must lie some years in the future.
(Citations followed by "GD" and "GR" are listed in the Bibliography under "Government Documents" and "General References" respectively)
Ceylon, Department of Census and Statistics, Statistical ab- stract . . . (1960) GR; Ceylon, Department of Commerce (1955–57) GD; India, Department of Commercial Intelli- gence and Statistics, Statistical abstract . . . (various years) GR; India (Republic), Central Statistical Organisation, Sta- tistical abstract . . . (various years) GD; International Mone- tary Fund (various years) GD; V. G. Kulkarni (1968); Paki- stan statistical year book, 1964, GR; Times of India directory . . . (various years) GR; U.S. Dept. of Commerce (1966) GD.
XI.E.1. South Asia, Economy, 1961; Sectoral Distribution of the Labor Force and per Capita Income, 1961
On plate XI.E.1 we have attempted to provide, through maps, graphs, and a statistical table, a broad overview of the more important aspects of the economy of South Asia as of 1961. This presentation might profitably be compared with an- other, for the year 1857, that appears on plate VII.B.2.
Map (a) presents data on land use, commercialization of agriculture, mineral resources and mining, manufacturing, transportation, foreign trade, and urban population. It synthe- sizes data derived from many previous maps in atlas sections XI and I and utilizes a variety of additional sources as well. The information portrayed is obviously highly selective; only the more important roads and railroads are shown, for exam- ple, and among major industrial enterprises only steel mills have been singled out for special identification. Further, there is an element of subjectivity not only in what we have chosen to show, but also in our differentiating areas of relatively com- mercialized non-plantation agriculture from those that are rela- tively subsistence-oriented (cf. plate XI.B.2 and the discussion related to it). In the light of what has been said relative to other plates in the economic and demographic section of this atlas, a detailed discussion of the patterns revealed on map (a) would inevitably be largely redundant. Therefore we let it speak for itself.
The organization of the economy in terms of the sectoral allocation of the labor force and the productivity of the econ- omy, as reflected by per capita income, are depicted on map (b) and the pie graphs to the left of it. The preponderance of the
Also of interest on map (b) are the overall ranges in annual per capita income. Ceylon, where the figure is 619 rupees, en- joys a commanding lead over the other countries of South Asia. Within India, the range of income by states is great, from only 212 rupees per capita per year in Bihar to 469 rupees in Bombay. In Pakistan, the gap between the 373 rupees of the West and the 295 rupees of the East is also significant.
Finally, map (b) and the table to the left of it indicate the degree of participation of males and females in the labor force, by major administrative units within countries on the map and for the countries as a whole as well as for their total rural and total urban populations. As shown on map (b), women con- stitute as little as 9% and 15% of the total 1961 labor force of West and East Pakistan respectively and as much as 45% of the total in Himachal Pradesh or 41% in Nepal and Madhya Pradesh. The all-India average is 31.5%. Throughout South Asia the rates of participation of women in the urban labor force are substantially lower than they are in rural areas. Male participation rates are also somewhat lower for the urban areas, reflecting both a higher rate of unemployment and a higher proportion of males attending school than are to be found in the South Asian countryside. Readers wishing to ana- lyze our data further should bear in mind that different cen- suses utilize different criteria in enumerating the labor force. (These differences have already been commented on in the discussions of plates XI.B.1 and 4.) One must accordingly take into account varying definitions and the likely sources of bias in reporting. For females in particular the element of bias in reporting is apt to be great.
Sources (in addition to previous plates in section XI)
The Ceylon yearbook (1962); Ceylon directory (1969–70).
Ceylon (1953), (1963); India (1961); Nepal (1952–54); Pakistan (1961).
United Nations, ECAFE, Statistical yearbook . . . (1962).
India (Republic), National Atlas Organisation (1959–65); India (Republic), Office of the Registrar General (1970); E. Kremling (1957–); Oxford school atlas for Pakistan (1959).
N. Ahmad (1968); O. H. K. Spate and A. T. A. Learmonth (1967).