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Schwartzberg Atlas, v. , p. 327.

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Guide to the Use of the Index Please consult New Index, page 374, for notes on the effects of Addenda and Corrigenda on the original index.

A. Types of Entries

This index includes an alphabetized listing of virtually all regions, places, movements, and other mappable features plotted in the atlas, as well as of per- sons indicated on maps and in the text, and major subject headings. (For names on facsimile maps and on plate VII.B.1, see section E below.) The principle of alphabetization followed is word-by-word, rather than letter-by-letter (e.g., "Nūr Mahal" precedes "Nuristan"). Entries are of several types, as indicated below.

Principal Entries. These are entries for which one or more page locations are provided to the right of the entry itself. All proper names for which only a single spelling exists in the atlas will be found as principal entries. For those places, regions, and so forth, for whose names two or more spellings appear in the atlas the more/most modern name is the principal entry, except for names relating to Southeast Asia before 1450, in which case Indianized names are made principal entries in preference to names of local or other non-Indian origin.

Parenthetical Entries. These appear where useful, in parentheses after prin- cipal entries. They may have any of the following connotations:

a. They may signify a country, state, region, or such, in which a given place is situated: e.g., "Ahwaz (Iran)." (This rule obtains almost exclusively for places outside South Asia, since names for places within South Asia can nor- mally be found by using the grid references.)

b. They may signify a dynasty, sect, or religious order to which a given individ- ual belonged: e.g., "Āditya I (Co&lline;as)." (The context will, in all cases, make it clear whether a dynasty or a sect or an order is being referred to.)

c. They may signify a modern name when that name itself does not appear in the atlas, where it is felt that a knowledge of the modern name may be of use: e.g., "Ahicchatra (mod. Ramnagar)." When this usage is employed the mod- ern name is always preceded by "mod."

d. They may qualify or limit the principal entry: e.g., "Burma (pre-British con- quest)," "Burma (Republic of)," and "Burma (Crown Colony)," all with the same symbol, indicating "primary political units"; "Indians (abroad)."

Cross-Referenced Entries. These entries are cross-referenced to a principal entry by the notation "v." followed by the appropriate name or subject (see sec- tion D, "Page and Map References," below).

Subsidiary Entries. These entries are found below or immediately after the main entries to which they relate.

a. Normally they appear in alphabetical order, slightly indented, on one or more lines below the principal name for which they represent (an) alternative form(s).

"Adam's Bridge Setu Setubandha"

b. Subsidiary entries may, however, appear on the same line as principal entries in several circumstances:

1. When the only difference in orthography between the two is the addition of diacritical marks: e.g., "Ajanta, Aja&ntod;&ttod;ā."

2. When, on a specific atlas plate, two or more names appear separated by a slash: e.g., "Adas/Arras," on page 55.

3. When one or more alternative terms with roughly the same meaning or interest are indexed together as a convenience to the reader: e.g., "agri- culture/agriculturists/cultivation/cultivators/farming."

B. Symbols

The nature of most of the items indexed is indicated by symbols whose mean- ings are indicated below. Symbols provided for principal index entries are not repeated for subsidiary entries. Symbols are omitted for many entries for items whose nature is self-evident. When more than one symbol is used for a given name, the order of their presentation follows that in the listing below.

Symbol and Meaning Examples ■ Primary political units: empires, Mughal Empire, Mārātha  confederacies, independent states, vassal Confederacy, India, Sikkim  states, dependencies (pre-1975), Portuguese India ◩ Subdivisions of above: states (within a Uttar Pradesh, East Pakistan,  federation), provinces, princely states (under Hyderabad, North-East Frontier  British suzerainty or within India or Agency, Bhangi (misl), Dera Ghazi  Pakistan), states' agencies, Sikh misls, districts Khan □ Regions (excluding those that are essentially Dakkan, Kośala  physical), including janapadas and   mahājanapadas  • Settlements, including forts, pilgrimage sites, New Delhi  etc.  ∴ Archaeological sites (symbol not used where Mohenjo-daro  place named also appears as a settlement [see   symbol above] on certain maps)  ∧∧ Mountain ranges, hill ranges Himalayas, Naga Hills ∧ Mountain peaks, individual hills Everest, Mt., Śa&ndot;karācaryagiri ⎶ Passes Khyber Pass ÷÷ Deserts Thar Desert ┴┴ Forests Da&ntod;&dtod;aka Forest ○ Archipelagos, islands Andaman Islands, Car Nicobar ▭ Other terrain features (other than water Kanya Kumari, Gangetic Delta, Bist  features): capes, deltas, doabs, isthmuses, Doab, Kra Isthmus, Kathiawar  peninsulas, etc. Peninsula, etc. ☯ Oceans, seas, bays, gulfs, etc. Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Bay of   Bengal, Persian Gulf, etc. ࿀ Lakes Manasarowar Lake ⚕ Swamps, marshes, tidal flats Rann of Kutch ━ Straits, channels, inlets, river mouths Palk Strait, Ten Degree Channel,   Ga&ndot;gāsāgara ≈ Rivers, streams Ganga ‖‖ Peoples: nations, tribes, castes, clans, and Mongols, Santals, Jats, etc.  other ethnic groups not covered by symbols   below  ✶ Language families, language groups, Indo-European, Indic, Hindi, Western  languages, dialect groups, dialects, scripts Hindi, Braj, Devnagari ✠ Religions, sects, religious orders, and religious Hinduism, Śaivism, Jesuit(s), Divine  establishments Light Mission, etc. ⃤s Social and cultural movements and Bhoodan Movement, Aligarh  organizations Movement, Sarva Seva Sangh ► Political parties, factions, coalitions, and Indian National Congress, Indian  movements National Congress (Opposition),   Forward Bloc, Khilafat Movement ✭ Dynasties Mughals ▯ Persons Mohandas K. Gandhi ⟙ Deities Śiva ⚔ Wars, battles Revolt of 1857–59, Plassey △ Treaties Segauli

C. Map Grid References

Many atlas maps, especially those with a great many place names, are pro- vided with a location grid, the general nature and use of which is explained and illustrated on page xxxvi. Grid references, when used, appear in bold face in the index, immediately before the listing of map pages on which the indexed item is shown. Apart from the rules on page xxxvi, a few additional observations are in order. For extensive features (regions, mountain ranges, etc.), grid references provided indicate the general extent of that feature. When a feature, such as a political region, has a different extent on different maps, the grid references gen- erally suggest its maximum extent. Rivers whose names are plotted in different grid squares on different maps are normally indexed according to the location of the name on the large-scale sectional maps on pages 138–40.

D. Page and Map References; Cross References

The final portion of main and subsidiary atlas entries is the listing of pages on

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