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A Comparative Dictionary of Indo-Aryan Languages

[page xii]



* hypothetical
< (is) derived from
> (has) become
← (is) a loanword from
→ (is) a loanword into
X contaminated by, making a portmanteau word with
+ with the addition of, extended by
~ beside, parallel with
? doubtful
?? very doubtful
˚ except for letters following or preceding the sign the word is the same as the preceding one
† occurring for the first time in Addenda


ab. above
absol. absolutive
ac. according (to)
acc. accusative
act. active
Add. addendum, addenda
adj. adjective, adjectival
adv. adverb, adverbial
ά. λ. ἅπαξ λεγόμενον, recorded once only
altern. alternatively
anal. analogy, analogical
aor. aorist
assim. assimilated to, assimilation to
bec. because
bel. below
bes. beside
C Centre, Central (group of languages)
c. cum, with
caus. causative
cert. certainly
cf. confer, compare
cl. attested in Classical Sanskrit as opposed to earlier Sūtra, Brāhmaṇa and Veda texts
cmpd. compound(ed)
coll. colloquial
collect. collective(ly)
com. commentary, ṭīkā
comp. comparative
conn. connected with
dat. dative
del. delete
denom. denominative
der. derivation, derived from
deriv. derivative(s)
desid. desiderative
dial. dialect, dialectal
dimin. diminutive
dir. direct case
dissim. dissimilated from, dissimilation from
do. ditto
du. dual
E east
emph. emphatic
encl. enclitic
ep. epithet
esp. especially
etym. etymology
euphem. euphemism, euphemistically
excl. excluding
express. expressive
ext. extension with, extended by
f. feminine
fn. footnote
fol. following
fr. from
gen. genitive
ger. gerundive
hapl. haplology
hon. honorific
hyper-Pa. hyper-paliism
hyper-Sk. hyper-sanskritism
ib. ibidem, in the same work
id. idem, having the same meaning.
i.e. id est, that is
imper. imperative
impers. impersonal
improb. improbable, improbably
incl. including
ind. indicative
inf. infinitive
infl. influenced (by)
inj. injunctive
inscr. inscription
inst. instrumental
interj. interjection
interr. interrogative
intr. intransitive
ipf. imperfect
irreg. irregular
l. line
lggs. languages
lit. literature, i.e. references to previous writing on the subject
loc. locative
lw. loanword
M Middle
m. masculine
metath. metathesis (of)
metr. metrical(ly)
mng. meaning
mod. modern
morph. morphological(ly)
N north
n. neuter
new ser. see N.S.
nom. nominative
nom. prop. nomen proprium, proper name
N.S. (or new ser.) new series
num. numeral(s)
NW north-west
O old
obl. oblique case
onom. onomatopoeic
opp. opposed (to)
opt. optative
orig. original(ly)
part. participle
partic. particular(ly)
pass. passive
pejor. pejorative(ly)
perf. perfect
perh. perhaps
phonet. phonetically, on phonetic grounds
pl. plural
pluperf. pluperfect
[page xiii]
poet. poetry, found in poetical works
pop. popular(ly)
pop. etym. popular etymology
poss. possible, possibly
postp. postposition
pp. past participle (passive)
prec. preceding
pref. preferable, preferably
pres. present
pret. preterite
prob. probable, probably
pron. pronoun
pronom. pronominal
q.v. quod vide, which see
r. read
redup. reduplicated
ref. reference(s)
rel. relative
S south
sb. or subst. substantive
sc. scilicet, there is to be understood
semant. semantically, on account of the meaning
sg. singular
st. stem
subj. subjunctive
subst. see sb.
superl. superlative
s.v. sub verbo, under the word as quoted
SW south-west
tr. transitive
unexpl. unexplained, inexplicable
usu. usual(ly)
vb. verb
vill. village, rustic
viz. videlicet, namely
v.l. varia lectio, different reading
voc. vocative
W west
w.r. wrong reading


A. Assamese
al. Alashai dialect of Pashai
amg. Ardhamāgadhī Prakrit
Ap. Apabhraṁśa
Ar. Arabic
Ār. Aryan, i.e. Indo-iranian
ar. Areti dialect of Pashai
Aram. Aramaic
Arm. Armenian
arm. Armenian dialect of Gypsy
as. Asiatic dialects of Gypsy
Aś. Aśokan, i.e. the language of the Inscriptions of Aśoka
Ash. Ashkun (Aṣkū̃ — Kaf.)
Austro-as. Austro-asiatic
Av. Avestan (Iranian)
Aw. Awadhī
awāṇ. Awāṇkārī dialect of Lahndā
B. Bengali (Baṅglā)
Bal. Balūčī (Iranian)
bāṅg. Bāṅgarū dialect of Western Hindī
Bashg. Bashgalī (Kaf.)
bh. Bairāṭ Bhābrū Minor Rock Edict of Aśoka
bhad. Bhadrawāhī dialect of West Pahāṛī
bhal. Bhalesī dialect of West Pahāṛī
bhaṭ. Bhaṭěālī sub-dialect of Ḍogrī dialect of Panjābī
bhiḍ. Bhiḍlàī sub-dialect of Bhadrawāhī dialect of West Pahāṛī
Bhoj. Bhojpurī
BHSk. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit
Bi. Bihārī
bir. Birir dialect of Kalasha
boh. Bohemian dialect of European Gypsy
Brah. Brāhūī (Dravidian)
Brj. Brajbhāṣā
bro. Brokpā dialect of Shina
Bshk. Bashkarīk (Dard.)
bul. Bulgarian dialect of European Gypsy
Bur. Burushaski
cam. Cameāḷī dialect of West Pahāṛī
Chil. Chilīs (Dard.)
chil. Chilasi dialect of Shina or of Pashai
cur. Curāhī dialect of West Pahāṛī
Ḍ. Ḍumāki
dar. Darrai-i Nūr dialect of Pashai
Dard. Dardic
dh. Dhauli Rock Inscription of Aśoka
Dhp. Gāndhārī or Northwest Prakrit (as recorded in the Dharmapada ed. J. Brough, Oxford 1962)
Dm. Dameli (Damε̃ḍīˊ — Kaf.-Dard.)
ḍoḍ. Ḍoḍī (Sirājī of Ḍoḍā), a dialect of Kashmiri in Jammu
ḍog. Ḍogrī dialect of Panjābī
dr. Drās dialect of Shina
Drav. Dravidian
Eng. English
eng. English dialect of European Gypsy
eur. European (Gypsy)
Fr. French
G. Gujarātī
Ga. Gadba (Dravidian)
Garh. Gaṛhwālī
Gau. Gauro (Dard.)
gav. Gavīmaṭh Inscription of Aśoka
Gaw. Gawar-Bati (Dard.)
germ. German dialect of European Gypsy
ghis. Ghisāḍī dialect of wandering blacksmiths in Gujarat
gil. Gilgitī dialect of Shina
gir. Girnār Rock Inscription of Aśoka
Gk. Greek
Gmb. Gambīrī (Kaf.)
gng. Gaṅgoī dialect of Kumaunī
Goth. Gothic
gr. Greek dialect of European Gypsy
gul. Gulbahārī dialect of Pashai
gur. Gurēsī dialect of Shina
Gy. Gypsy or Romani
H. Hindī
hal. Halabī dialect of Marāṭhī
haz. Hazara Hindkī dialect of Lahndā
h.rudh. High Rudhārī sub-dialect of Khaśālī dialect of West Pahāṛī
hung. Hungarian dialect of European Gypsy
IA. Indo-aryan
IE. Indo-european
Ind. Indo-aryan of India proper excluding Kafiri and Dardic
Indo-ir. Indo-iranian or Aryan
Ir. Iranian
ish. Ishpi dialect of Pashai
Ishk. Ishkāshmī (Iranian)
isk. Iskeni dialect of Pashai
it. Italian dialect of European Gypsy
jau. Jaugaḍa Rock Inscription of Aśoka
jaun. Jaunsārī dialect of West Pahāṛī
jij. Jijelut dialect of Shina
jmag. Jaina Māgadhī Prakrit
jmh. Jaina Mahārāṣṭrī Prakrit
[page xiv]
jt. Jāṭū sub-dialect of Bāṅgarū dialect of Western Hindī
jub. North Jubbal dialect of West Pahāṛī
K. Kashmiri (Kāśmīrī)
kach. Kāchṛī dialect of Lahndā
Kaf. Kafiri
Kal. Kalasha (Kaláṣa — Dard.)
kāl. Kālsī Rock Inscription of Aśoka
Kamd. See Kmd.
Kan. Kanarese (Kannaḍa — Dravidian)
Kand. Kandia (Dard.)
kar. Karači (Transcaucasian) dialect of Asiatic Gypsy
kash. or kiś. Kashṭawāṛī dialect of Kashmiri
Kaṭ. Kaṭārqalā (Dard.)
kāṭh. Kāṭhiyāvāḍi dialect of Gujarātī
kb. Kauśāmbī Pillar Edict of Aśoka
kc. Kocī dialect of West Pahāṛī
kcch. Kacchī dialect of Sindhī
kch. Kachur-i Sala dialect of Pashai
kgr. or kng. Kāṅgrā sub-dialect of Ḍogrī dialect of Panjābī
KharI. MIA. forms occurring in Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol. II Pt. 1
khas. Khasa dialect of Kumaunī
khaś. Khaśālī dialect of West Pahāṛī
khet. Khetrānī dialect of Lahndā
Kho. Khowār (Dard.)
Khot. Khotanese (Iranian)
kiś. See kash.
kiũth. Kiũthalī dialect of West Pahāṛī
Kmd. or Kamd. Kāmdeshi (Kaf.), Kāmdesh dialect of Kati
kṇḍ. Kaṇḍak dialect of Pashai
kng. See kgr.
Ko. Koṅkaṇī
Koh. Kohistānī (Dard.)
koh. Kohistānī dialect of Shina
Kol. Kōlāmī (Dravidian)
kōl. Kōlā dialect of Shina
kq. Kauśāmbī (Queen's Edict) Inscription of Aśoka
Kt. Kati or Katei (Kaf.)
Ku. Kumaunī
Kur. Kuruḵẖ (Dravidian)
kuṛ. Kuṛaṅgali dialect of Pashai
Kurd. Kurdish (Iranian)
kurd. Kurdari dialect of Pashai
ky. Kanyawālī dialect of Maiyã̄
L. Lahndā
la. Lāṛī dialect of Sindhī
lagh. Laghmani dialect of Pashai
lakh. Lakhīmpurī dialect of Awadhī
Lat. Latin
lauṛ. Lauṛowānī dialect of Pashai
Lith. Lithuanian
l.rudh. Low Rudhārī sub-dialect of Khaśālī dialect of West Pahāṛī
ludh. Ludhiānī dialect of Panjābī
M. Marāṭhī
mag. Magahī dialect of Bihārī
Mai. Maiyã̄ (Dard.)
Mal. Malayāḷam (Dravidian)
Māl. or Malw. Mālwāī
mald. See Md.
Malw. See Māl.
man. Mānsehrā Rock Inscription of Aśoka
marm. Marmatī sub-dialect of Khaśālī dialect of West Pahāṛī
Marw. Mārwāṛī
Md. or mald. Maldivian dialect of Sinhalese
mg. Māgadhī Prakrit
mh. Mahārāsṭrī Prakrit
MIA. Middle Indo-aryan
mi. Delhi Mīrat Pillar Edict of Aśoka
mid.rudh. Middle Rudhārī sub-dialect of Khaśālī dialect of West Pahāṛī
Mj. Munǰī (Iranian)
Mth. Maithilī
mth. Mathiā (Lauṛiyā-Nandangaṛh) Inscription of Aśoka
Mu. Muṇḍā
mult. Multānī dialect of Lahndā
N. Nepāli
New. Newārī
ng. Nāgārjunī Cave Inscription of Aśoka
NIA. New (modern) Indo-aryan
NiDoc. Language of `Kharoṣṭhī Inscriptions discovered by Sir Aurel Stein in Chinese Turkestan' edited by A. M. Boyer, E. J. Rapson, and E. Senart
nig. Niglīvā Inscription of Aśoka
nij. Nijelami (Neẓəlāˊm) dialect of Pashai
Niṅg. Niṅgalāmī (Dard.)
nir. Nirlāmī dialect of Pashai
Nk. Naiki (Dravidian)
norw. Norwegian dialect of European Gypsy
OHG. Old High German
OPruss. Old Prussian
Or. Oṛiyā
Orm. Ōrmuṛīˊ (Iranian)
OSlav. Old Slavonic
Oss. Ossetic (Iranian)
P. Panjābī (Pañjābī)
Pa. Pali
pach. See pch.
pāḍ. Pāḍarī sub-dialect of Bhadrawāhī dialect of West Pahāṛī
Pah. Pahāṛī
Pahl. Pahlavi (Iranian)
paiś. Paiśācī Prakrit
pal. Palestinian dialect of Asiatic Gypsy of the Nawar
pales. Palesī dialect of Shina
paṅ. Paṅgwāḷī dialect of West Pahāṛī
Par. Parachi (Parāčī — Iranian)
Parth. Parthian (Iranian)
Paš. Pashai (Pašaī — Dard.)
paṭ. Paṭṭanī dialect of Gujarātī
pch. or pach. Pachaghani dialect of Pashai
Pers. Persian (Iranian)
pers. Persian dialect of Asiatic Gypsy
Phal. Phalūṛa (Dard.)
Pk. Prakrit
pog. Pǒgulī dialect of Kashmiri
pol. Polish dialect of European Gypsy
poṭh. Poṭhwārī dialect of Lahndā
pow. Pōwādhī dialect of Panjābī
Pr. Prasun (Kaf.)
Prj. Parji (Dravidian)
Psht. Pashto (Iranian)
pun. Punchī dialect of Lahndā
punl. Puniali dialect of Shina
rām. Rāmbanī dialect of Kashmiri in Jammu
rdh. Radhia (Lauṛiyā Ararāj) Pillar Edict of Aśoka
Rj. Rājasthānī
roḍ. Roḍiyā dialect of Sinhalese
roh. Rohruī dialect of West Pahāṛī
rp. Rāmpurvā Rock Edict of Aśoka
ru. Rūpnāth Inscription of Aśoka
rudh. Rudhārī sub-dialect of Khaśālī dialect of West Pahāṛī
[page xv]
rum. Rumanian dialect of European Gypsy
rumb. Rumbūr dialect of Kalasha
rus. Russian dialect of European Gypsy
Russ. Russian
S. Sindhī
ś. Śaurasenī Prakrit
sah. Sahasrām Inscription of Aśoka
Sang. Sanglechi (Saṅlēčī — Iranian)
Sant. Santālī (Muṇḍā)
Sar. Sarīkolī (Iranian)
SEeur. South-east European dialects of Gypsy
śeu. Śeuṭī sub-dialect of Khaśālī dialect of West Pahāṛī
Sh. Shina (Ṣiṇā — Dard.)
shah. Shāhbāzgaṛhī Rock Inscription of Aśoka
sham. Shamakaṭ dialect of Pashai
she. Shewa dialect of Pashai
Shgh. Shughnī (Iranian)
Shum. Shumashti (Šumāštī — Dard.)
shut. Shutuli dialect of Pashai
Si. Sinhalese
Sik. Sikalgārī (Mixed Gypsy Language: LSI xi 167)
sir. Sirājī dialect of West Pahāṛī
sirm. Sirmaurī dialect of West Pahāṛī
Sk. Sanskrit
sn. Sārnāth Inscription of Aśoka
snj. Sanjan dialect of Pashai
sod. Sǒdōcī dialect of West Pahāṛī
Sogd. Sogdian (Iranian)
sop. Bombay-Sopārā Inscription of Aśoka
sp. Spanish dialect of European Gypsy
srk. Sirāikī dialect of Sindhī
suk. Suketī dialect of West Pahāṛī
Sv. Savi (Dard.)
Tam. Tamil (Dravidian)
Tel. Telugu (Dravidian)
Tib. Tibetan
Tir. Tirāhī (Dard.)
Toch. Tocharian
top. Delhi-Tōprā Pillar Edict of Aśoka
Tor. Tōrwālī (Dard.)
Tu. Tuḷu (Dravidian)
Turk. Turkish
urt. Urtsun dialect of Kalasha
uzb. Uzbini dialect of Pashai
vrāc. Vrācaḍa Apabhraṁśa
waz. Waziri dialect of Pashto
weg. Wegali dialect of Pashai
wel. Welsh dialect of European Gypsy
Werch. Werchikwār or Wershikwār (Yasin dialect of Burushaski)
Wg. Waigalī or Wai-alā (Kaf.)
Wkh. Wakhi (Iranian)
Woṭ. Woṭapūrī (language of Woṭapūr and Kaṭārqalā — Dard.)
WPah. West Pahāṛī
Yazgh. Yazghulami (Iranian)
Yghn. Yaghnobi (Iranian)
Yid. Yidgha (Iranian)


AitBr. Aitareya-Brāhmaṇa
Alaṁkārat. Alaṁkāratilaka
Anargh. Anargharāghava
ĀpŚr. Āpastamba's Śrautasūtra
ĀruṇUp. Āruṇeya-Upaniṣad
Āryav. Āryavidyā-sudhākara
AṣṭāvS. Aṣṭāvakra-Saṁhitā
ĀśvGr̥. Āśvalāyana-Gr̥hyasūtra
ĀśvŚr. Āśvalāyana-Śrautasūtra
AV. Atharvaveda
Bālab. Bālabodhanī
Bālar. Bālarāmāyaṇa
BaudhŚr. Baudhāyana-Śrautasūtra
Bcar. Buddha-carita
Bhadrab. Bhadrabāhu-caritra
Bhag. Bhagavadgītā
Bhām. Bhāminī-vilāsa
Bhar. Bharata-nāṭyaśāstra
Bhartr̥. Bhartr̥hari
Bhaṭṭ. Bhaṭṭikāvya
Bhojap. Bhojaprabandha
BhP. Bhāgavata-Purāṇa
Br. Brāhmaṇas
BrahmavP. Brahmavaivarta-Purāṇa
Br̥ĀrUp. Br̥had-Āraṇyaka-Upaniṣad
Campak. Campaka-śreṣṭhi-kathānaka
Cāṇ. Cāṇakya
Caṇḍ. Caṇḍa-kauśika
Car. Caraka
Caurap. Caurapañcāśikā
ChUp. Chāndogya-Upaniṣad
com. commentary, ṭīkā
Daś. Daśakumāracarita
Dāyabh. Dāyabhāga
deśīn. Deśīnāmamālā
Devīm. Devīmāhātmya
Dharmaś. Dharmaśarmābhyudaya
Dhātup. Dhātupāṭha
Dhūrtas. Dhūrtasamāgama
Divyāv. Divyāvadāna
Ep. Epic
Gal. Galanos's Dictionary
Gaṇit. Gaṇitādhyāya
Gaut. Gautama-Dharmaśāstra
Gīt. Gītagovinda
Gobh. Gobhila
Gop. Gopālakelicandrikā
Gr. Grammarians
Gr̥hyas. Gr̥hyasaṁgraha
Gr̥S. Gr̥hya-Sūtra
Gr̥Śr. Gr̥hya- and Śrauta-Sūtra
Hār. Hārāvalī
Hariv. Harivaṁśa
Hcar. Harṣacarita
Hcat. Hemādri's Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi
Hemac. Hemacandra
Hit. Hitopadeśa
ĪśUp. Īśa-Upaniṣad
Jaim. Jaimini
JaimBr. Jaiminīya-Brāhmaṇā
Jyot. Jyotiṣa
Kād. Kādambarī
Kālac. Kālacakra
Kālid. Kālidāsa
KālP. Kālikā-Purāṇa
Kalpas. Kalpasūtra
Kām. Kāmandakīya-nītisāra
Kandarp. Kandarpacūḍāmaṇi
KapiṣṭhS. Kapiṣṭhalakaṭha-Saṁhitā
KapS. Kapila's Sāṁkhya-pravacana
Kāś. Kāśikāvr̥tti
Kāśīkh. Kāśīkhaṇḍa of the Skanda-Purāṇa
Kāṭh. Kāṭhaka
Kathārṇ. Kathārṇava
Kathās. Kathāsaritsāgara
KaṭhUp. Kaṭhopaniṣad
KātyŚr. Kātyāyana-Śrautasūtra
Kauś. Kauśikasūtra
KauṣUp. Kauṣītaki-Upaniṣad
KauṣBr. Kauṣītaki-Brāhmaṇa
[page xvi]
Kauṭ. Kauṭilīya-Arthaśāstra
Kāv. Kāvya
Kāvyād. Kāvyādarśa
Kir. Kirātārjunīya
Kpr. Kāvyaprakāśa
Kr̥ṣis. Kr̥ṣisaṁgraha
Kṣitīś. Kṣitīśa-vaṁśāvali-carita
Kull. Kullūka's Commentary on Mānavadharmaśāstra
Kum. Kuṁārasaṁbhava
Kuval. Kuvalayānanda
Lalit. Lalitavistara
Lāṭy. Lāṭyāyana
lex. attested only in lexicographical works, i.e. the Kośas
Līl. Līlāvatī of Bhāskara
Mahīdh. Mahīdhara
MaitrS. Maitrāyaṇī-Saṁhitā
MaitrUp. Maitrāyaṇī-Upaniṣad
Mālatīm. Mālatīmādhava
Mānas. Mānasollāsa
MantraBr. Mantra-Brāhmaṇa
MārkP. Mārkaṇḍeya-Purāṇa
MBh. Mahābhārata
MBhāṣ. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali
Mcar. Mahāvīra-caritra
Mit. Mitākṣarā
Mn. Manu, Mānava-Dharmaśāstra
Mr̥cch. Mr̥cchakaṭikā
Mudr. Mudrārākṣasa
Mv. Mahāvastu
Mvy. Mahāvyutpatti
MW. M. Monier-Williams: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Oxford 1899
Nāgeś. Nāgeśabhaṭṭa
Naigh. Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska
Nalac. Nalacampū
Naiṣ. Naiṣadhacarita
Nīlak. Nīlakaṇṭha
Nir. Nirukta by Yāska
Npr. Nighaṇṭuprakāśa
Nr̥sUp. Nr̥siṁha-tāpanīya Upaniṣad
Nyāyam. Nyāyamālavistara
Nyāyas. Nyāyasūtrāṇi of Gotama
Padap. Padapāṭha
Pāṇ. Pāṇini
Pañcad. Pañcadaṇḍacchattra-prabandha
Pañcar. Pañcarātra
Pañcat. Pañcatantra
PārGr̥. Pāraskara-Gr̥hyasūtra
Pārśvan. Pārśvanāthacaritra
Prasannar. Prasannarāghava
Pur. Purāṇas
R. Rāmāyaṇa
Rājaś. Rājaśekhara
Rājat. Rājataraṅginī
Ratir. Ratirahasya
Ratnāv. Ratnāvalī
Rudray. Rudrayāmala
RV. R̥gveda
RVPrāt. R̥gveda-Prātiśākhya
Sāh. Sāhitya-darpaṇa
Saṁgīt. Saṁgītasārasaṁgraha
Sāṁkhyak. Sāṁkhyakārikā
Sāṁkhyapr. Sāṁkhyapravacana
Saṁskārak. Saṁskārakaustubha
ŚāṅkhBr. Śāṅkhāyana-Brāhmaṇa
ŚāṅkhGr̥. Śāṅkhāyana-Gr̥hyasūtra
ŚāṅkhŚr. Śāṅkhāyana-Śrautasūtra
Śāntiś. Śāntiśataka
ŚārṅgS. Śārṅgadhara-Saṁhitā
Sarvad. Sarvadarśana-saṁgraha
Śatr. Śatruṁjaya-māhātmya
ŚBr. Śatapatha-Brāhmaṇa
Siddh. Siddhānta-kaumudī
Siddhāntaś. Siddhāntaśiromaṇi
Śikṣ. Śikṣāsamuccaya
Śīl. Śīlāṅka
Śiś. Śiśupālavadha
ŚivaP. Śiva-Purāṇa
SkandaP. Skanda-Purāṇa
Śrutab. Śrutabodha
SŚaṁkar. Saṁkṣepa-Śaṁkara-vijaya
Subh. Subhāṣitāvali
Śukas. Śukasaptati
Sūktik. Sūktikarṇāmr̥ta
Śulbas. Śulbasūtra
Suparṇ. Suparṇādhyāya
Sūryap. Sūryaprajñapti
Suśr. Suśruta
SV. Sāmaveda
ŚvetUp. Śvetāśvatara-Upaniṣad
Tantras. Tantrasāra
Tattvas. Tattvasamāsa
TBr. Taittirīya-Brāhmaṇa
TejobUp. Tejobindu-Upaniṣad
Tithyād. Tithyāditya
TS. Taittirīya-Saṁhitā
TUp. Taittirīya-Upaniṣad
Udbh. Udbhaṭa
Ujjval. Ujjvaladatta's Commentary on Uṇādisūtra
Uṇ. Uṇādisutra
Uṇk. Uṇādikalpa
Uṇvr̥. Uṇādivr̥tti
Up. Upaniṣads
Uttarar. Uttararāma-carita
Vāgbh. Vāgbhaṭālaṁkāra
Vait. Vaitānasūtra
Vajracch. Vajracchedikā
Vām. Vāmana's Kāvyālaṁkāravr̥tti
VarBr̥S. Varāhamihira's Br̥hatsaṁhitā
VarYogay. Varāhamihira's Yogayātrā
Vas. Vasiṣṭha
Vasantar. Vasantarāja's Śākuna
Vāsav. Vāsavadattā
Vāstuv. Vāstuvidyā
Vātsyāy. Vātsyāyana
VāyuP. Vāyu-Purāṇa
Vcar. Vikramāṅkadevacarita of Bilhaṇa
Vedavy. Vedavyāsāṣṭaka
Viddh. Viddhaśālabhañjikā
Vikr. Vikramorvaśī
Viṣṇ. Viṣṇu's Institutes
Viṣṇus. Viṣṇusmr̥ti
Vop. Vopadeva
VP. Viṣṇu-Purāṇa
VS. Vājasaneyi-Saṁhitā
Yājñ. Yājñavalkya
Yaś(ast). Yaśastilaka of Somadevasūri
Yogas. Yogasūtra
Yudh. Yudhiṣṭhiravijaya


ABORI Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. Poona.
AO Acta Orientalia. Leiden. [Unless otherwise stated, the author of the article referred to is G. Morgenstierne.]
Apte Vaman Shivram Apte, The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Revised
[page xvii]
and Enlarged Edition by P. K. Gode and C. G. Karve. Poona, 1957-9.
ArchLing Archivum Linguisticum. Glasgow.
ArchOr Archiv Orientální. Journal of the Czecho-slovak Oriental Institute. Praha.
Bailey ShGr. T. Grahame Bailey, Grammar of the Shina (Ṣiṇā) Language. London, 1924.
Bartholomae Airb Christian Bartholomae, Altiranisches Wörterbuch. Strassburg, 1905.
BB Beiträge zur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen. Herausgegeben von A. Bezzenberge und W. Prellwitz. Göttingen.
BDCRI Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. Poona.
B.D. Jain Phon. Panj. See PhonPj.
Beames J. Beames, A Comparative Grammar of the Modern Aryan Languages. London, 1872-5.
BEFEO Bulletin de l'École Francaise de l'Extrême Orient.
BelvalkarVol Dr. S. K. Belvalkar Felicitation Volume. [All references, unless otherwise stated, are to the article by G. Morgenstierne.]
Bender Nal The Nalarāyadavadantīcarita. Edited and translated by Ernest Bender. [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, Vol. 40, Part 4. 1950.]
Bhal-dial. See Varma BhalDial.
BHS Franklin Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary. Newhaven, 1953.
BKPD Georg Buddruss, Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Pašai-Dialekte. [Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes xxxiii, 2.]
Bloch As Jules Bloch, Les Inscriptions d'Asoka. Paris, 1950.
Bloch IA Jules Bloch, L'Indo-Aryen du Veda aux temps modernes. Paris, 1934.
Bloch LM See LM.
Bloch Tsig Jules Bloch, Les Tsiganes. Paris, 1953.
BR See PW.
Bray Brah Denis Bray, The Brāhūī Language, Parts II and III. Delhi, 1934.
Brough Dhp J. Brough, The Gāndhārī Dharmapada. Oxford, 1962.
BSBU See Lüders BSBU.
BSL Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris.
BSOAS Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. London.
BSOS Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies. London.—Since 1943 = BSOAS.
Buddruss (or G.B.) Personally communicated by Professor G. Buddruss.
Buddruss Kan Georg Buddruss, Kanyawali: Proben eines Maiyã̄-Dialektes aus Tangir (Hindukusch). München, 1959.
Buddruss Woṭ Georg Buddruss, Die Sprache von Woṭapūr und Kaṭārqalā. Bonn, 1960.
Burrow KharDoc T. Burrow, The Language of the Kharoṣṭhi Documents from Chinese Turkestan. Cambridge, 1937.
Burrow SkLg T. Burrow, The Sanskrit Language. London, 1955.
Childers DPL R. C. Childers, A Dictionary of the Pâli Language. London, 1875 (reprint 1923).
CII Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum. Volume I Oxford, 1925. Volume II Calcutta, 1929.
COJ Calcutta Oriental Journal.
CPD A Critical Pali Dictionary. Begun by V. Trenckner, revised, continued and edited by Dines Andersen and Helmer Smith. Copenhagen, 1924-.
CR Calcutta Review.
Dave Personally communicated by Dr. T. N. Dave.
Dave GujLg T. N. Dave, A Study of the Gujarati Language in the 16th century (V.S.). London, 1935.
DED T. Burrow and M. B. Emeneau, A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary. Oxford, 1961. [References to numbered entries.]
DGW (or Sampson) John Sampson, The Dialect of the Gypsies of Wales. Oxford, 1926.
DSL A Dictionary of the Sinhalese Language. Colombo, 1935-.
EA Baburam Saksena, Evolution of Awadhi. Allahabad, 1937.
EGS Wilhelm Geiger, An Etymological Glossary of the Sinhalese Language. Colombo, 1941.
EI Epigraphia Indica. Calcutta.
El W. J. Elmslie, A Vocabulary of the Kashmiri Language. London, 1872.
EOL K. B. Tripathi, The Evolution of Oriya Language and Script. Cuttack, 1962.
ES Wilhelm Geiger, Etymologie des Singhalesischen. München, 1897. Aus den Abhandlungen der k. bayer. Akademie der Wiss. I Cl. XXI Bd. II Abth. [Page references to separate offprint in which pp. 3-99 = pp. 177-273.]
EVP G. Morgenstierne, An Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto. Oslo. [Skrifter utgitt av Det Norske VidenskapsAkademi i Oslo II Hist.-Filos. Klasse, 1927, No. 3.]
EWA Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindischen. Heidelberg, 1953-.
EZ Epigraphia Zeylanica. Colombo.
FestschrHerzfeld Archaeologica Orientalia in memoriam Ernst Herzfeld. 1952.
FestskrBroch Festskrift til Professor Olaf Broch. Oslo, 1947.
Finck AZ F. N. Finck, Die Sprache der armenischen Zigeuner. Mémoires de l'Académie imperiale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, VIIIe series, Classe Historico-philologique Vol. viii 5.
FOK (or Katre FKo) S. M. Katre, The Formation of Koṅkaṇī. Bombay, 1942.
G.B. See Buddruss.
GBVoc Gawar-Bati Vocabulary in MS. lent by G. Morgenstierne 1946.
Ge. K. F. Geldner, Der Rigveda übersetzt und erläutert.
Geiger Pali Gr. See next.
[page xviii]
Geiger PLS Wilhelm Geiger, Pali Literatur und Sprache. Strassburg, 1916.
GHA Göteborgs Högskolas Årsskrift.
G.M. See Morgenstierne.
Grahame Bailey Personally communicated by Dr. T. Grahame Bailey.
Grām. See Gupta Grām.
Grierson BPL George A. Grierson, Bihar Peasant Life. Patna, 1885. 2nd edition 1926.
Grierson KD George A. Grierson, A Dictionary of Kāshmīrī Language. Calcutta, 1932.
Grierson MthLg. George A. Grierson, An Introduction to the Maithili Language of North Bihár. [Extra number to JASB Pt. 1, 1880-2.] Calcutta, 1881-2.
Grierson PiśLg George A. Grierson, The Piśāca Languages of North-Western India. London, 1906.
Grierson Tor George A. Grierson, Torwali: An account of a Dardic language of the Swat Kohistan. London, 1929.
GS Wilhelm Geiger, A Grammar of the Sinhalese Language. Colombo, 1938.
Gupta Grām Hariprasād Gupta, Grāmodyog aur unkī śabdāvalī. Delhi, 1958.
GWZS S. A. Wolf, Grosses Wörterbuch der Zigeuner-Sprache. Mannheim, 1960. [References to numbers of articles.]
Hendriksen Personally communicated by Professor H. Hendriksen.
Hettiaratchi Indeclinables D. E. Hettiaratchi, Indeclinables in Sinhalese.
Hettiaratchi Vowels D. E. Hettiaratchi, The history of the vowels in Sinhalese. Thesis for the degree of Ph.D., University of Calcutta, 1944.
HJ H. Yule and A. C. Burnell, HobsonJobson: A glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases. New edition by W. Crooke. London, 1903.
Horn NPE Paul Horn, Grundriss der Neupersischen Etymologie. Strassburg, 1893.
HŚS Śyām Sundar Dās, Hindīśabdasāgara. Allahabad, 1929.
Hübschmann ArmGr H. Hübschmann, Armenische Grammatik. Leipzig, 1895.
Hultzsch As E. Hultzsch, Inscriptions of Asoka. [Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, vol. i.] Oxford, 1925.
IEW (or Pokorny) Julius Pokorny, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Bern, 1959.
IF Indogermanische Forschungen. Zeitschrift für Indogermanistik und allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft. Berlin.
IIFL G. Morgenstierne, Indo-Iranian Frontier Languages. Oslo, 1929-56.
IIJ Indo-Iranian Journal.
IL Indian Linguistics. Bulletin of the Linguistic Society of India. Poona.
JA Journal Asiatique. Paris.
JAOS Journal of the American Oriental Society. New Haven.
JBORS Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society. Patna.
JBRAS Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Bombay.
JGIS Journal of the Greater India Society.
JGLS Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society. Edinburgh.
Joshi Tîka Râm Joshi, A Dictionary of the Pâhari Dialects as spoken in the Punjab Himalayas. JRASB (New Series) vii 5, 1911.
JRASB Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta.
Ju. (or Jukes) A. Jukes, Dictionary of the Jatki or Western Panjábi Language. Lahore, 1900.
JVEDSt Journal of Vedic Studies. Lahore.
Katre FKo See FOK.
Kern Toev H. Kern, Toevoegselen op 't Woordenboek van Childers; 2 pts. [Verhandlingen Kon. Ak. von Weetenschappen te Amsterdam N.R. xvi 5.] Amsterdam, 1916.
KharI Sten Konow, Kharoṣṭhī Inscriptions. [Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, vol. ii, part 1.] Calcutta, 1929.
Kuiper Myth F. B. J. Kuiper, An Austro-Asiatic Myth in the Rigveda. [Mededelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandsche Akademie . . . Deel 13, No. 7.] Amsterdam, 1950.
Kuiper PMWS See PMWS
KZ Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der indogermanischen Sprachen. Begründet von A. Kuhn. Göttingen.
Lakṣmīdhar Pad Lakṣmīdhar, Vocabulary of the Padumāvatī of Jāyasī. [A thesis for the degree of Ph.D. deposited in London University Library.]
Laufer Bernard Laufer, Sino-Iranica: Chinese Contributions to the History of Civilisation in Ancient Iran. Chicago, 1919.
LM Jules Bloch, La Formation de la Langue Marathe. Paris, 1920.
Lor. (or Lorimer) Personally communicated by Lt. Col. D. L. R. Lorimer C.I.E.
Lorimer BurLg D. L. R. Lorimer, The Burushaski Language. Oslo, 1935.
Lorimer ḌumLg D. L. R. Lorimer, The Ḍumāki Language: Outlines of the Speech of the Ḍoma or Bēricho of Hunza. [Publications de la Commission d'Enquête Linguistique, iv.] Nijmegen, 1939.
LSI G. A. Grierson (with Sten Konow), Linguistic Survey of India. Calcutta, 1903-27.
Lüders BSBU H. Lüders, Beobachtungen über die Sprache des buddhistischen Urkanons (aus dem Nachlass herausgegeben von B. Waldschmidt). Berlin, 1954.
Lüders PhilInd Philologica Indica. Ausgewählte kleine Schriften von Heinrich Lüders. Göttingen, 1940.
Maya Singh PD Bhai Maya Singh, The Panjábi Dictionary. Lahore, 1895.
Mayrhofer HPa M. Mayrhofer, Handbuch des Pali. Heidelberg, 1951.
Miklosich Mund Franz Miklosich, Über die Mundarten und die Wanderungen der Zigeuner Europa's. Wien, 1872-80.
Miscellany A Miscellany of Papers published by the Rao Sahib G. V. Ramamurti Pantulu's Birthday Celebration Committee.
MO Le Monde Oriental. Archives pour
[page xix]
l'Histoire et l'Ethnographie, les Langues et Littératures, Religions et Traditions de l'Europe Orientale et de l'Asie. Uppsala.
Molesworth MD J. T. Molesworth, A Dictionary Marāṭhī and English. 2nd edition. Bombay, 1857.
Morgenstierne (or G.M.) Personally communicated by Professor G. Morgenstierne.
MSL Mémoires de la Société de Linguistique de Paris.
MW Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford, 1899.
ND R. L. Turner, A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of the Nepali Language. London, 1931.
Neisser WGRV W. Neisser, Zum Wörterbuch des Rigveda. Leipzig, 1924, 1930.
NIA New Indian Antiquary. Poona.
NOGaw Georg Morgenstierne, Notes on Gawar-Bati. [Skrifter utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo, II Hist.-Filos. Klasse. 1950 No. 1.] Oslo, 1950.
NOPhal Georg Morgenstierne, Notes on Phalūṛa an unknown Dardic language of Chitral. [Skrifter utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo, II Hist.-Filos. Klasse. 1940 No. 5.] Oslo, 1941.
NTS Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap. Oslo. [Unless otherwise stated, the author of the article referred to is G. Morgenstierne.]
ODBL Suniti Kumar Chatterji, The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language. Calcutta, 1926.
Panse Jñān Murlidhar Gajanan Panse, Linguistic Peculiarities of Jñāneśvarī. Poona, 1953.
PhonPj Banarsi Das Jain, A Phonology of Panjabi and a Ludhiani Phonetic Reader. Lahore, 1934.
Pischel GrPk R. Pischel, Grammatik der PrakritSprachen. Strassburg, 1900.
Platts UD John T. Platts, A Dictionary of Urdū, Classical Hindī, and English. 4th imp. London, 1911.
PMWS F. B. J. Kuiper, Proto-Munda Words in Sanskrit. [Verhandeling der Koninklijke Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afd. Letterkunde, Nieuwe Reeks Deel LI, No. 3.] Amsterdam, 1948.
POBh G. C. Praharaj, Pūrṇṇachandra Orḍiā Bhāshākosha. Cuttack, 1931-40.
Pokorny See IEW.
Pre-Aryan Pre-Aryan and Pre-Dravidian in India. By Sylvain Lévi, Jean Przyluski, and Jules Bloch. Translated from French by Prabodh Chandra Bagchi. Calcutta, 1929.
PSM Hargovind Das T. Sheth, Pāiasaddamahaṇṇava: a Comprehensive Prakrit Hindi Dictionary. Calcutta, 1923-8.
PTSD T. W. Rhys Davids and W. Stede, The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary. Chipstead, 1925.
PW (or BR) Sanskrit-Wörterbuch, bearbeitet von Otto Böhtlingk und Rudolph Roth. St. Petersburg, 1855-75.
Raghu Vira Personally communicated by Dr. Raghu Vira.
Rajwade MDh Rajwade, Marāṭhī Dhātukośa. Poona.
Rep1 Georg Morgenstierne, Report on a Linguistic Mission to Afghanistan. [Instituttet for Sammenlignende Kulturforskning: serie C I-2.] Oslo, 1926.
Rep2 Georg Morgenstierne, Report on a Linguistic Mission to North-western India. [Instituttet for Sammenlignende Kulturforskning: serie C II-1.] Oslo, 1932.
RM PHMA: Mitteilungen zur idg. vornemlich indo-iranischen Wortkunde sowie zur holothetischen Sprachtheorie. München, 1955-.
RoczOrj Rocznik Orjentalistyczny. Kraków.
Sã̄ḍesrā Phāg Prācīna Phāgu-saṁgraha. Edited by Bhogīlāl J. Sã̄ḍesrā and Somābhāi Pārekh. Baroda.
Saksena Personally communicated by Professor Baburam Saksena.
Sampson See DGW.
SBAW Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften.
Schmidt Nachtr Nachträge zum Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung von Otto Böhtlingk, bearbeitet von Richard Schmidt. I-VI Hannover 1924-6, VII-VIII Leipzig 1928.
SED B. Clough, A Sinhalese-English Dictionary. New and enlarged edition. Colombo, 1892.
Shirt SD A Sindhi-English Dictionary, compiled by G. Shirt, Udharam Thavurdas, and S. F. Mirza. Kurrachee, 1879.
SigGr S. Paranavitana, Sigiri Graffiti. Oxford, 1956.
Siiger Kalasha material collected by Dr. H. Siiger (see NTS XX 186).
S. K. Chatterji Personally communicated by Professor Suniti Kumar Chatterji.
SSS Sorata Thera, Srisumaṅgala Sabdakosaya. Colombo, 1952.
Stack SD G. Stack, A Dictionary, Sindhí and English. Bombay, 1849.
Stein RājatTrans Rājataraṅginī: translated by Aurel Stein.
StudII Studia Indo-iranica. Ehrengabe für Wilhelm Geiger. Leipzig, 1931.
Suman Braj A. B. Suman, Kr̥ṣak-jīvan-sambandhī Brajbhāṣā. Allahabad, 1960.
S. Varma Personally communicated by Professor Siddheshwar Varma.
ThomasEIS A Volume of Eastern and Indian Studies in honour of F. W. Thomas C.I.E.
TPS Transactions of the Philological Society. London.
Tulpule OMR S. G. Tulpule, An Old Marathi Reader. Poona, 1960.
Uhlenbeck C. C. Uhlenbeck, Kurzgefasstes Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Altindischen Sprache. Amsterdam, 1899.
Varma BhalDial Siddheshwar Varma, The Bhalesī Dialect. [Royal Asiatic Society Monograph Series, vol. iv.] Calcutta, 1948.
Wackernagel AiGr J. Wackernagel, Altindische Grammatik. Göttingen, 1896-.
[page xx]
Whitney SkGr William Dwight Whitney, A Sanskrit Grammar. Boston, 1896.
Wijeratne Personally communicated by Dr. P. B. F. Wijeratne: see also WR.
Woolner Gloss A. C. Woolner, Asoka Text and Glossary. Lahore, 1924.
WP A. Walde, Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen: herausgegeben und bearbeitet von J. Pokorny. Berlin and Leipzig, 1927.
WR P. B. F. Wijeratne, MS. of Etymological Index attached to Phonology of the Sinhalese Inscriptions up to the end of the 10th Century A.D. [Thesis for the degree of Ph.D. University of London, 1944.] BSOAS xi 580-94, 823-36, xii 163-83, xiii 166-81, xiv 263-98, xix 479-514.
WZKSOA Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Süd- und Ostasiens.
ZDMG Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft.
ZII Zeitschrift für Indologie und Iranistik. Leipzig.
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